Saturday, December 30, 2006


Cellular death-by-suicide is part of normal development, and is termed apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD). Cysteine Aspartate Specific ProteASEs -- caspases -- are active in apoptosis, as is p53, a tumor suppressor gene.
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Apoptosis and CaspaseGenome Biology Full text DNA-damage signaling and apoptosis: "Cytochrome c binds the apoptosis-activating factor 1 (Apaf1) protein, leading to oligomerization of Apaf1 and caspase 9 into a large 'apoptasome', which then initiates a cascade of caspase activation. Although some non-caspase targets of caspase activation are known, the consequences of proteolysis of these targets are not well understood. Similarly, the events upstream of activation of the caspase cascade in response to DNA damage are not well known; in particular, it is not clear what regulates the decision to undergo apoptosis or to arrest cell proliferation and repair the damage."

apoptosis: Bcl-2 proteins Apoptosis - Bcl-2 proteins: "The bcl-2 proteins are a family of proteins involved in the response to apoptosis. Some of these proteins (such as bcl-2 and bcl-XL) are anti-apoptotic, while others (such as Bad or Bax) are pro-apoptotic. The sensitivity of cells to apoptotic stimuli can depend on the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic bcl-2 proteins. When there is an excess of pro-apoptotic proteins the cells are more sensitive to apoptosis, when there is an excess of anti-apoptotic proteins the cells will tend to be less sensitive."Cysteine Aspartate Specific ProteASEs -- caspases -- are active in apoptosis, as is p53, a tumor suppressor gene.

Kimball's Apoptosis Page : Apoptosis - Website : Apoptosis Website : Wikipedia on apoptosis : pathology : Cell Suicide in Health and Disease Scientific American Digital : Google apoptosis : animation - zeiosis : Apoptosis, Bcl2, Mitochondria~click on Q for animation : Apoptosis~time-lapse movie : art~apoptosome formation : art~inactivation of DNA repair enzymes : Cell Death Pathways - diagram


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